The "system of coordinates" is just a fancy way to describe particular "coordinates", which you said to now what it means, with the focus on the "choices" which were made to choose some way of defining and measuring coordinates and not others.
"System of reference" was just a particular phrase used by Einstein once, it is not routinely used, and what he meant was nothing else than a "system of coordinates". In special relativity, the phrase automatically meant an "inertial system of coordinates", in general relativity, he allowed other systems of coordinates, too.
Also, "space of reference" only meant a "system of coordinates" which allows to identify points/locations by numbers, and this "imagined grid" in the empty space is thought of as a "space".
The only point of that paragraph by Einstein was to express the principle of relativity i.e. say that the space isn't an absolute object in the sense that the vacuum would be filled with some metallic grids. Instead, the empty space is really empty and doesn't even justify our talking about its objective location, let alone the velocity of the non-existing (metallic) grid. All velocities are equally good for formulating the laws of physics – the principle of relativity. If we want to talk about well-defined locations of objects with respect to the "space", we can't assume that the "space" makes some objective sense. Instead, we must use a "space we construct" by actually adding rulers or metallic grids into space.
In this way, the coordinates of objects are really expressed relatively to the positions of solid objects such as the metallic rods and grids and rulers, and the abstract space that was completely empty but supposed to behave as a piece of matter must be replaced by actual matter objects embedded into space. The speed of these actual matter objects – rulers, rods, grids – may be arbitrary. And indeed, the laws of physics must carefully distinguish the effect of the speed of these reference objects. That's why the time depends on the reference frame – it (and the simultaneity of events) depends on the speed of the "metallic grids" that replace the previous, ill-conceived idea of a "universal grid".
If you understand relativity and how it differs from classical physics by making many things (such as the simultaneity of events) dependent on the chosen inertial system, you shouldn't spend time with the two phrases and this paragraph, let alone search for whole "books" to clarify this particular awkward phrase (there are no "whole books" dedicated to this phrase). The paragraph says nothing else than the usual wisdom about the need to describe physics relatively to a particular chosen coordinate system which isn't unique.