You are unlucky, because the microworld of electrons nuclei, atoms and molecules has been studied with mathematical models for over a hundred years and it is not open to hand waving hypothesis of the type: I would say electrons are very tiny containers of energy, which can contain between a minimum and a maximum of such energy, depending on how much energy they absorb and emit
My question is, what force acts in order to keep the electron away from colliding with the protons in the nucleus?
This was one of the basic questions that formulated first the Bohr model of the atom and then the Schrodinger equation which led to the theory of quantum mechanics..
Instead of the electron falling continuously on the nucleus, experiments showed that a discrete spectrum was obtained, with a ground state where the electron has a stable orbital.
And how do lower energy state electrons keep the higher energy ones more external towards the atomic ray? Shouldn't higher energy electrons suffer more the attraction of the nucleus?
Electrons in the higher quantized states will cascade down to the ground state releasing energy as photons.
The electric potential of the nucleus, used in the Schrodinger equation, gives solutions whose complex conjugate square give the probability for the electron to be at a specific orbital. The closer to the nucleus the more energy will be needed to free the electron, which energy has to be quantized .
Quantum mechanics has to be studied mathematically, to be really understood. The Bohr model of the hydrogen atom is useful to start with, but it is the Schrodinger equation that is the real quantum mechanical model .