In many papers on laser dynamics theory, quantum Langevin equation of operators is converted to c-number stocastic differential equations, which is analyzed to obtain results. However, why this procedure is justified is not described in the papers, at least not satisfactory for me. I try to trace back to earlier literature, but still can't find a good explanation. Some of the papers I'm referring to are:

  1. role of pumping statistics in laser dynamics Quantum Langevin approach, Phys. Rev. A

  2. role of pumping statistics and dynamics of atomic polarization in quantum fluctuations of laser sources, Phys. Rev. A

  3. laser theory with finite atom-field interacting time, Phys. Rev. A

  4. sub-Poissonian processes in quantum optics, Rev. Mod. Phys.

Could anyone provide a brief answer? Or maybe direct me to a better reference.

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Which many papers? $\endgroup$ – Qmechanic May 13 '16 at 12:35
  • $\begingroup$ I'm sorry that I forgot to include the paper information in the post at the beginning. Titles of some papers have been appended at the end of the post. $\endgroup$ – Pu Zhang May 13 '16 at 13:14

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