Concerning the Oil Drop Experiment:
I read, “Ionizing radiation is used to create the electron that the droplets of oil collect.
When the air in the apparatus is bombarded by this ionizing radiation it produces electrons.
The oil droplets collect those electrons as they fall down into the lower part of the, negatively, charged plate.
How does ionizing radiation create the electron(s) that the droplets of oil collect?
Here are the following references:
Radiation is the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization.
An anion (−) is an ion with more electrons than protons, giving it a net negative charge. Electrons are negatively charged.
Electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves.
The quanta of EM waves are called photons.
A photon is the quantum of all forms of electromagnetic radiation.
Concerning the doughnut-shaped electromagnetic field.
Photons do not have mass. Electrons do have mass.
A photon is the quantum of all forms (schemes) of electromagnetic radiation.
First photons, virtual photons align into a torus (scheme). Once a torus scheme of virtual photons stabilizes - a dipole is created in the center of the torus circular cross-section.
The first dipole created in the center of the torus is equal to the second dipole in the center hole of the doughnut. Photon are: captured, circulate, perpetuate from the dipole in the center hole of the doughnut.
The electron is a doughnut-shaped electromagnetic field.
The invariant mass of an electron is approximately 9.109×10−31 kilograms. Weight is the gravitational force acting on any given object.
An electron is an electric monopole and a magnetic dipole. Three poles in total. Reference https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/does-a-single-electron-have-poles.349254/ Reference Dipole-Dipole interactions