Concerning the Oil Drop Experiment:

I read, “Ionizing radiation is used to create the electron that the droplets of oil collect.

When the air in the apparatus is bombarded by this ionizing radiation it produces electrons.

The oil droplets collect those electrons as they fall down into the lower part of the, negatively, charged plate.

How does ionizing radiation create the electron(s) that the droplets of oil collect?

Thank You

Here are the following references:

Radiation is the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving subatomic particles, especially high-energy particles that cause ionization.

An anion (−) is an ion with more electrons than protons, giving it a net negative charge. Electrons are negatively charged.

Electromagnetic radiation consists of electromagnetic waves.

The quanta of EM waves are called photons.

A photon is the quantum of all forms of electromagnetic radiation.

Concerning the doughnut-shaped electromagnetic field.

Photons do not have mass. Electrons do have mass.

A photon is the quantum of all forms (schemes) of electromagnetic radiation.

First photons, virtual photons align into a torus (scheme). Once a torus scheme of virtual photons stabilizes - a dipole is created in the center of the torus circular cross-section.

The first dipole created in the center of the torus is equal to the second dipole in the center hole of the doughnut. Photon are: captured, circulate, perpetuate from the dipole in the center hole of the doughnut.

The electron is a doughnut-shaped electromagnetic field.

The invariant mass of an electron is approximately 9.109×10−31 kilograms. Weight is the gravitational force acting on any given object.

Thank You

An electron is an electric monopole and a magnetic dipole. Three poles in total. Reference https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/does-a-single-electron-have-poles.349254/ Reference Dipole-Dipole interactions

  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Ionizing radiation, be definition, is capable of turning a neutral atom into an electron and a positively charged ion. A photon with energy higher than the first ionization energy for the atom can do it. An alpha or gamma will do it through Rutherford scattering, the interaction between charged particles. Most of your post is totally irrelevant to the question at hand. $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer May 10 '16 at 22:41
  • $\begingroup$ By ionizing atoms and molecules in the air. $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer May 10 '16 at 22:50
  • $\begingroup$ How does ionizing radiation turn a neutral atom or build up the electron cloud? Should we forever accept phenomenon. Rutherford scattering is the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction. It is a physical phenomenon. Thank you for your time. $\endgroup$ – Symmetry May 10 '16 at 23:07
  • $\begingroup$ @Symmetry: Is it your belief that a photon cannot be absorbed by an electron as a forceful push? $\endgroup$ – CR Drost May 10 '16 at 23:10
  • $\begingroup$ @Symmetry: I was not derisive of anything. There is a thing that you cannot properly cite, which is that the ionizing radiation creates the electron. That word creates is not correct. It perhaps creates a 'free electron', in the sense that it makes a bound electron free. In that sense you might be taking someone out of context. The electron itself is not 'created' -- it preexists. In other words, this effect happens at much lower energies than are needed for pair-production of electrons and positrons, which is the real situation where a photon 'creates' an electron. See my answer below. $\endgroup$ – CR Drost May 12 '16 at 17:07

So the entire electromagnetic force can be described as having these objects which interact by exchanging virtual photons. Photons -- light -- in some sense are the electromagnetic force.

It is therefore unsurprising that light can be absorbed by a particle -- an electron, say -- as a sudden "push" which launches the electron in some new direction with some new velocity. In a sense this is a deep mystery; electrons do this because they have 'electrical charge' which is another way of sort of saying "they interact this way and we don't quite know why." However there is a deeper level of the theory with isospin and hypercharge that does explain it a little bit at a somewhat more fundamental level -- but that's beyond the scope of this comment. Why-so-ever it happens, it happens that electrons can absorb photons and go off flying. If you're asking why does that happen? then the answer is, the only answers you will find to that question at this stage are outright crank-science.

The rest of the explanation is really easy, once you have "electrons happen to be the sort of things which can absorb photons": Air, of course, is made up of atoms which consist of positively charged cores surrounded by clouds of electrons. When a photon hits an atom in a molecule in the air, chances are it hits the electron. If it has enough kick, it launches that electron from its nice stable orbit, and you have free electrons. That's all you need!

This process is called ionizing because it creates a free electron and a positively charged ion out of the neutral air. The light frequencies which have enough kick to do this are called ionizing radiation. Therefore, by virtue of being ionizing radiation, the light is strong enough to kick electrons out of their orbits around neutral atoms, producing these free electrons which can then sometimes collide with oil drops.


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