Would you accept "It's complicated..."? The first problem is that even though (atomic) solids are composed of atoms, they don't behave like the atoms they are made from when hit by light. For that you have to have a dilute mono-atomic gas. I can't think of a single element at the moment (someone please help me out!) that has a gaseous phase comprised of single atoms at normal conditions, and I can't recall which (any) will interact with visible light by electronic transitions from their ground state. Most solids do not interact by simple electronic transitions, either, but what you see are molecular excitations or bulk electronic effects (in metals) instead. There are rare exceptions in diluted systems where individual fluorescent atoms are embedded in a solid matrix, but that just makes things more complicated, still, as these atomic probes are seeing the local fields in the solid.
If you want to directly observe true atomic transitions, you have to get an element to an atomic gas state, first, and then you have to excite it either with ultraviolet light, by collision or with an electric discharge to get into an excited state from which there are visible and near IR transitions.
In comparison, solids and liquids made of molecules can show interesting molecular excitations which give them their colors that can be seen in absorption and reflection. The shiny appearance of metals is based on the free delocalized electrons, so that's a totally different mechanism, again.
This only scratches the range of possibilities. There are single trapped electrons (called "color centers", e.g. visible in blue fluorescing diamonds), inner shell electrons in fluorescent rare earth metals and a plethora of more complex mechanism that enable light-matter interaction in the solid phase.