Those pictures do not mean what you think they mean. Specifically, if something is in the ground state, there is a nonzero rate at which you will find it much farther away than that sphere if you repeatedly do a position interaction on an ensemble all in the ground state.
So that sphere isn't a region in which a ground state electron lives just waiting to be observed.
Which is a problem with your characterization of the uncertainty principle. You write
you can not know the place and speed of a particle, at the same time. You only have probabilities of the estimate values.
If you can't know something, why would it make sense to that it even has a value? Even postulating that objects have positions and momentum's and that position interactions merely reveal the preexisting position and that mkmentum interactions merely reveal previously existing momentum leads to problems. Leads to predictions that disagree with observations.
Fundamentally, the order in which you do interactions changes the results you get, so you aren't merely passively revealing things, you are changing things.
These probabilities forms a region where an electron can be found, according to previous experiments.
No. A nonrelativistic wavefunction isn't a function of physical space, it is a function of configuration space. And the pictures you draw make it look like an electron won't be found far away. They can. Your pictures are just trying to describe regions that are somewhat more likely than others to give particular results. And in a very misleading way.
So if this other theory predicts that the electrons won't be found far away, then the theory is wrong.