How can copper wire in an electricity generator produce an infinite number of electrons when the is a finite number orbiting each copper nucleus?
closed as off-topic by Alfred Centauri, Sebastian Riese, ACuriousMind♦, CuriousOne, Kyle Kanos Feb 24 '16 at 10:50
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There is also a second question you should ask: where do all these electrons go?
Since you need to close the circuit to have an electric current, the answer is that the electrons just circle through the circuit indefinitely.
If the circuit is not closed the electrons can flow only for a short amount of time. When there are no more electrons available, the current stops. A good example of this situation is a lightning.
On average each copper atom provides one mobile (free) electron. It is these free electrons which are responsible for the electrical conduction process.
The number of free electrons which leave one terminal of the coil when it is part of a complete electrical circuit is equal to the number of electrons which enter at the other terminal of the coil.
It is just like the water in a central heating system circulating round a complete loop.
In any conductor say made of copper or other conductor there are large number of electrons-which can be counted by using Avogadro Number( 6.022×10^23), atomic mass of copper,. and mass of the copper being used .(density of conduction electrons in copper is n = 8.45 ×10^28 m-3.)
All the electrons of the atom do not participate in conduction of current
each copper atom can contribute its valence electrons which are loosely bound and can be made free by acting electric field to participate in the conduction of electrical energy.
Electromagnetic induction, where an electrical generator, dynamo or alternator transforms kinetic energy (energy of motion) into electricity. This is the most used form for generating electricity and is based on Faraday's law.The operating principle of electromagnetic generators was discovered in the years of 1831–1832 by Michael Faraday. The principle, later called Faraday's law, is that an electromotive force is generated in an electrical conductor which encircles a varying magnetic flux. It can be experimented by simply rotating a magnet within closed loops of a conducting material (e.g. copper wire)
In a electrical circuit under the influence of Potential difference the conduction electrons accelerate and get energetic collide with other electrons/atoms and transfer energy to the colliding particles- the current flows till the source of providing difference of potential and motive force to the electrons sustains. A battery or a cell is such a device which stores electricity as chemical energy and as we draw current the chemical energy converts to electrical energy and drives the flow of current .