Is it possible to measure the static electricity in a room using a VOM or some other digital meter? I have a lot of static electricity building up in a carpeted room, and would rather not spend the money buying a meter to measure this.
Yes, you can build your own electrometer.
Take a look at this project: http://www.instructables.com/id/Arduino-ElectrometerCapacitive-Object-Sensor/
In general, no. The input impedance of most cheap meters is too low. So, you either need a specialist meter for numbers, or a cheap and easy way to detect the static field and give you an approximate idea. This circuit, for example