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I was bothered by some explanations in the internet about light. Can someone correct me or answer my questions regarding on how electrons react when hit by a photon in different situations:

Reflection:

  1. are the photon and electron matched?

after being hit, the electron will move to a higher orbital.

  1. Which statement is correct:

*the frequency of the photon is the same with the natural frequency of the electron being hit.

or

*the energy of the photon matches the energy gap between orbitals.

--or it's just the same?--

3 does the natural frequency refers to its vibration?

4 if so, why do electrons vibrate?

At some point, the electron that just move to a higher orbital will go back to the ground state and by doing so releases photon.

5 Why does it need to go back to ground state?

6 Why is the photon emitted at the same face where it entered? I know that it has the same angle but why not into the direction towards the inner layer?

Absorption:

the photon and electron are matched so the electron will absorb the photon

7 does the electron move to a higher orbital after absorbing the photon?

8 if so, does it also go back to ground state? How?

I have read that the energy of the photon is converted into thermal through vibration.

9 electrons are vibrating prior to impact, but after hit how is it changed? Does it vibrate faster?

10 why not emit photon like in reflection instead of vibrating?

Transmission:

I think the photon and electron aren't match.

11 which is correct:

*the photon enters the electron then reemit it on the opposite side

or

*the photon never interacts with the electron then pass through the opposite side.

or any other explanations?

11 if the 1st one is correct, will the reemitted photon hit the next electron causing domino effect until the last layer of electrons?

Please answer briefly and concisely each question by number.... Tnx

The more I know, the more that I don't know...

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closed as too broad by DanielSank, ACuriousMind, John Rennie, Sebastian Riese, user36790 Feb 19 '16 at 18:27

Please edit the question to limit it to a specific problem with enough detail to identify an adequate answer. Avoid asking multiple distinct questions at once. See the How to Ask page for help clarifying this question. If this question can be reworded to fit the rules in the help center, please edit the question.

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    $\begingroup$ Welcome to Physics Stack Exchange. This is a wonderful place for physics Q&A. You've got a list of eleven questions here. We generally require each post to as one specific question. A post with multiple questions is very hard to answer because the person who might write an answer has to read, understand, think about, and write an answer eleven times instead of one time. It's ok to make several related posts, just be sure that each one asks a single question. $\endgroup$ – DanielSank Feb 19 '16 at 13:08