Let us try to clear up what light means and what a photon means.
Light is a solution of classical Maxwell's equations , an electromagnetic wave. As a wave it can have ploarizations that go through filters etc.
A photon is an elementary particle which has as energy h*nu, nu the frequency of an electromagnetic wave solution, and is described by a wave function that is the solution of the quantized Maxwell's equations. Classical electromagnetic waves emerge from a confluence of an extremely large number of photons.
I find the following image useful in talking of polarizations of photons which build up the classical electromagnetic wave:
Left and right handed circular polarization, and their associate angular momenta.
A photon has spin either + or - 1 against its direction of motion.
The electromagnetic field is shown as the rotating electric field to show the classical polarization. The photons which build up the classical field contribute with their wave function to this but always have the corresponding + or -1 according to the electromagnetic wave's polarization.
With the above framework
Q1: How does photon(superposition) knows whether it should be absorbed by the polaroid filter or not? either filter don't work with unpolarized light(obviously incorrect) or there's intrinsic value(also incorrect).
Each individual photon is an elementary particle and has a probability of interactions with the molecules in its path. That is how "it knows", by the probabilities. Now filter means that there exists transparency also, so some of the photons of the beam will be absorbed and some will scatter through, according to the quantum mechanical solutions of the boundary condition "photon + filter"
Q2: How does a polarized photon knows the polaroid filter's orientation?
The filter obviously has space orientation of the molecules it is composed of. These are part of the boundary conditions for the problem " photon+filter" and the appropriate probabilities predict the average paths of the photons.
Photons are always elementary particles. Their wave property is connected with the probability distributions for interaction.
The classical EM wave which is built up by zillions of photons can be interpreted classically and simply by considering the polarization of the EM wave and the classical scattering of waves through polarized molecules.