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- Permanent Magnet Lines & Currents: 2 answers
A permanent magnet produces lines of magnet flux that we call a "magnetic field". Those lines come from inside the magnet, come out of the N pole, loop outside the magnet, & return back into the S pole to complete a magnetic circuit. Using ferromagnetic materials, other magnets, &/or test equipment, we feel & measure forces that are caused by a magnet/s when other materials are placed within close enough proximity to the magnet/s (i.e. within their magnetic field/s). We therefore conclude that the magnetic lines flow in a specific direction & exert definite forces (i.e. magnitudes/strength) on some materials (ferromagnetic & other magnets), depending on where those materials are placed within the magnetic field of a magnet/s.
We label those forces as "H Field" & "B Field".
We measure H in terms of Amperes/meter. We measure B in terms of Newtons/meter/Ampere (or Tesla). We also commonly defined B in terms of the force that it exerts on moving electric charges (i.e. the Lorentz force).
An "Ampere" is basic unit of electrical current in the SI system, which = 1 Coulomb per second--which is formally defined to be the constant current which if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross section, and placed one meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a force equal to 2 × 10 −7 newton per meter of length.
A "Coulomb" is the standard unit of quantity of electricity in the SI system, which = the quantity of charge transferred across a conductor in which there is a constant current of 1 Ampere/Second.
Consequently, those "magnetic lines" are currents (or flows) of charges that don't appear to need any external source of energy to continue generating their currents.
We also know those magnetic lines exist inside a vacuum, so they are independent of air molecules to flow outside of a magnet.
So now my questions:
Exactly what charged particles are flowing outside (and inside) a permanent magnet that create the magnetic "lines"?
Do those particles come from something inside the magnet or does the magnet do something outside of it to affect unknown particles to make the lines?
If there is a current (i.e. a continuous flow of charged particles), then why don't we harness that current like a water wheel (instead of 'using energy' to rapidly move copper wires through magnetic fields--like we do with electricity generators?) Shouldn't we be able to get the line currents to charge a capacitor (or or other device) & then later discharge the capacitor for the energy that we want?