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It is well known that for some kind of double well potentials, there are two minima with one is unstable called the false vacuum while the other stable one called the true vacuum. The tunneling is allowed by quantum mechanics which is also called the false vacuum decay followed by the nucleation of bubbles. Colemann proved that the energy mostly locate on the bubble's wall. Now comes the question, what's the bublle's wall made up of? Since we always consider Higgs field, are they Higgs particles?

Inspired by the following discussions, I now know that there are no real particles associated with a static field. Because from the classical point of view, a real particle is an oscillation mode which we call plane wave. The static field may be treated as the a sea of virtual particles from the point of view of Fourier transformation. So are the domain walls.

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closed as unclear what you're asking by ACuriousMind, user36790, Gert, Hritik Narayan, Emilio Pisanty Nov 30 '15 at 16:29

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  • $\begingroup$ Why does it have to be "made" of anything? $\endgroup$ – ACuriousMind Nov 30 '15 at 13:04
  • $\begingroup$ Because energy always take the form of particles: fermions, photos, higgs particles and so on. If not, then there should be new form of energy. $\endgroup$ – Wein Eld Nov 30 '15 at 13:08
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    $\begingroup$ "Because energy always take the form of particles" is patently false - what "particle" is associated to potential energies? $\endgroup$ – ACuriousMind Nov 30 '15 at 13:09
  • $\begingroup$ virtual particles. But as Kostya said, this viewpoint may be somewhat metaphysical because virtual particles are simply the mathematical terms in the evaluation of path integral. $\endgroup$ – Wein Eld Dec 1 '15 at 14:18
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That depends on what you mean by "made up of". Is static electric field "made up of" photons? Is the stream of water "made up of" waves?

To me these are semantic games that have no connection to reality. But if you are willing to answer "yes" to the questions above, then you can safely say that those domain walls are "made up of" Higgs bosons (and also the longitudinal components of W and Z while we are on it).

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  • $\begingroup$ @WeinEld Ok. Just substitute "virtual" in appropriate places and have your answer. $\endgroup$ – Kostya Dec 1 '15 at 15:01

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