# How are fundamental forces transmitted?

How are the fundamental forces transmitted? In particular I wonder, are all "processes" local, i.e. without superluminal distant interactions? But if they are local, then particles would have to occupy exactly identical space positions, which seems unlikely? If forces are transmitted by particles, then when are these transmitting particles generated?

What are names of theories describing force interactions successfully? Are there alternative equally successful framework to standard models?

• If you like this question you may also enjoy reading this question. – Qmechanic Feb 25 '12 at 13:51
• possible duplicate of How are forces "mediated"? – Qmechanic Feb 25 '12 at 14:27
• Thanks. There are sort of similar questions, but my specific question how localization and distance come into play I couldn't find (it only mentions "quantum field" without further explanation which would help me). Maybe someone can elaborate on locality in particular? – Gerenuk Feb 25 '12 at 18:16
• Perhaps your specific question is more along the lines of this question? – Qmechanic Feb 25 '12 at 19:28

## 1 Answer

https://physics.stackexchange.com/a/200/7924 gives a competent and fairly complete answer to your question.

Let me add that locality is implemented automatically into the quantum field concept by the demand that the fields satisfy (weak operator) differential equations, which define the changes at some point in terms of values at the same point. Thus the fields in some region (such as those occupied by a particle = a localized lump of energy) changes with time without ever using information from elsewhere except the region itself an its boundary.

The forces are gradients of the fields and are ''there'' all the time with their right strength. The transmission of energy (perceived colloquially as transmission of forces) happens according to the laws derived from the differential equation. This are hyperbolic for systems with finite propagation speeds. This implies that pulses of energy spead in a wave-like manner to everywwhere where they can have an effect.

The transmission is completely analogous to that of gravitational forces by the gravitational field. Thus you can study the details in a framework much simpler than the standard model.