Let's say I have an electron traveling alone in the vacuum, when a vacuum disturbance (fluctuation) occurs nearby. If the disturbance has the correct form, say, an electron-position pair, could the positron annihilate with the original electron? (leaving the remaining electron) The positron would have to have negative mass to ensure conservation of mass/energy.
So, the overall question, could something like the above occur? I've been careful to specifically stay away from the term virtual particle.