In the transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics reference 1, inspired by the Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory, a transaction is formed between the emitter and absorber by a superposition of advanced and retarded waves. In a Minkowski diagram of such an interaction involving the emission and absorption of a particle, the emergence of the transaction does not occur at some particular location in space or some particular instant in time, but rather forms along the entire four – vector which connects the emission with the absorption locus. The transaction involves the interference of retarded and advanced waves.

The influence of the transaction in enforcing the correlations of the quantum events is both nonlocal and temporal. Due to this interference (destructive interference), there are no advanced (or retarded) waves before the emission of the particle and after its absorption, but constructive interference reinforces them between the emitter and the absorber (as points in space - time). Only the completion of this transaction facilitates the momentum and energy transfer between the emitter and absorber.

I emphasize that this happens in flat space – time (for type one transactions). My suggestion is to study these phenomena in curved space – time. This would require quantum field theory in curved space – time (as a theoretical tool). In various EPR experiments (or experiments involving entangled laser beams), if the emitter or the absorber are in a curved space – time, there is a distinct possibility that the transaction involving the interference of advanced and retarded waves might not be perfect (as in flat space - time), and therefore some residual advanced waves might be present, that could be detected (the destructive interference that cancels them in flat space – time might not be complete in curved space - time).

In fact, a simple experiment (conceptually at least) as directing a laser beam towards a black hole might open the possibility of detecting advanced waves. Introducing this element of asymmetry in terms of the curvature of space – time in the emitter or absorber vicinity might open the possibility of detection of these advanced waves. I am not thinking about sending messages to the past (at the macroscopic level), with all the paradoxes that it implies, but rather setting up experiments where the only way nature can be consistent would be to “promote” low probability events to very likely events, a way to influence the probability distribution of events (as Professor John Cramer would say).

It is also worth mentioning that the equivalence principle opens the door towards simulating such environments by putting the emitter and/or absorber in accelerating systems (fast rotation for example). Experimental tests in order to detect advanced waves were proposed by Partridge (in 1973), Heron and Pegg (in 1974), Schmidt and Newman (in 1980), and others. The actual performed experiments were unsuccessful, but none of them took into account the curvature of space – time around the emitter and absorber (in the context of the transactional interpretation). Only a complete analysis of these proposed experiments in the context of quantum field theory in curved space – time could estimate the level of feasibility of my proposed experiments.

The experiments described are just a few the class of imaginable possibilities. Would all this be possible?

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    $\begingroup$ The wall of text makes people not want to read the question. Breaking it up might be better. $\endgroup$
    – HDE 226868
    Oct 3, 2015 at 20:53
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    $\begingroup$ Seems a bit ambitious. You want to jump straight to a theory (QFT) with particle creation for transactional when AFAIK no multiparticle transactional theory has ever been made and then you want a curved spacetime on top too? $\endgroup$
    – Timaeus
    Oct 3, 2015 at 21:48
  • $\begingroup$ Feedback for @Timaeus. Thank you for your comments. The effect (detection of advanced waves) will probably be quite small and very close in time to the actual emission event, in order to avoid the logical paradoxes. The mathematical model could give the order of magnitude of the effect. It could still be important in the context of computation with CTC's. $\endgroup$ Oct 5, 2015 at 13:32
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    $\begingroup$ What I think it is interesting here is that you are suggesting that an emitter and an absorber wavefront will cancel to first-order corrections around a geodesic, but higher-order corrections might not cancel exactly, allowing one to detect an advanced signal. @Timaeus, if that's the case, the curved spacetime is a requirement to observe the effect suggested by Christian $\endgroup$ Oct 11, 2015 at 6:17
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    $\begingroup$ @CristianDumitrescu I would say that this is a good intuition, but I suggest you take two waveforms at different points such that in the flat geometry, the retarded and advanced wave cancel exactly, but then do a small perturbation to the geometry and see what are the corrections. My suspicion is that the intensity of the field itself will still cancel to all orders, but there might be some Berry-like phase perturbations that might still remain uncanceled along the curved geodesic $\endgroup$ Oct 12, 2015 at 13:54

2 Answers 2


Yes. It is possible. Why it is possible is because in quantum mechanics it has been proven that they can send signals from one to another. and even appear in different places at the same time. So if you look at the space time curve theory along side of quantum mechanics you find that a beam can be sent back with no issues to the past. for quantum physics would eventually even if seeming random would correct it. Any experiment can be done but measuring it would be like the measurements of quantum physics. Which Einstein says was like looking at a glove on one side of the planet and knowing its other half must be the opposite. So it would be still in debate. I hope I have come close to answering it for you.

  • $\begingroup$ Feedback for @timothy brachna . Your "answer" is utter nonsense. The ideas contained in my questions deserve better. Sorry. $\endgroup$ Oct 5, 2015 at 13:53
  • $\begingroup$ I answered the question. would all this possible? none of what i said was nonsense it just wasn't the answer you were hoping for. Yes i didn't give you a formula and no I didn't give a hole bunch of science terms but I did answer your question. I mean no offense truly, I just know what your question is asking is in fact possible. If you asked if some could figure out a formula or asked how it would be maybe i could have done a better job. I am sorry I could not answer to your satisfaction. $\endgroup$ Oct 5, 2015 at 14:48

No there is no such thing as curved space or time. Space is a three dimensional constant it can not change, movement can change but time is always constant.

Friction does not not constitute a slowing of time.

Nor does greasing the pig with a dis-junction field speed up time.

And black holes are not magical they are just old heavy metal stars that block most of their own light with massive metallic coronal eruptions. I decline to explain the sub-atomic reasons at this time.


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