To clarify some rules (cited and translated from the test):
Calculators and physics formularies not allowed.
On the last page there is a list of physical constants, etc. which may be useful. For questions where numerical answers are sought it is sufficient with one or two significant digits, depending on the number of significant digits in the given question. Do not forget units in your answers.
The page with "useful constants" provides you with the information as seen below.
So now to the question, which follows:
According to the LHC article on Wikipedia, protons are accelerated such that their mass energy is 7 TeV ≈ 1.12 µJ. Wikipedia states that the protons then have a speed of about 0.999999991c. However, CERN states own their own website that the relative speed of the protons is 0.9999c.
What speed does a proton with the mass energy 7 TeV have?
A. 0.9 c
B. 0.9999 c
C. 0.999999991 c
D. 0.9999999999991 c
How am I supposed to solve this without a calculator? For all these values, $\gamma$ is high as $v$ is close to $c$. As I have no access to a calculator according to the rules, I cannot calculate a numerical value of $\gamma$, at least not in a way I can tell the alternatives apart.