With respect, if you want to fully describe the operation of the modern jet turbine engine, you should consider the greatest change in the last 30 years or so, which has been the development of the large multi-bladed fan at the front of the engine.
Most modern jet turbine engines are of the high bypass design, with a large fan placed in front of a central core compressor unit. The term high bypass refers to the fact that the front fan is able, by diverting more air around the combustion chamber, to greatly reduce the noise produced by the engine, as well to significantly increase thrust by utilising the fan to "push" a much larger volume of air against the direction of motion, than a comparable low bypass engine.
So where is the physics in all of this? The purpose of the engine to make use of Newtons 3rd law of motion: for every reaction there is an equal and opposite reaction, and the high bypass engine utilises that principle as much as possible by using a set of initial compressor blades, which increase the density of the air by a large factor compared to normal atmospheric pressure, then using kerosene fuel to produce extremely hot, expanded air which is forced through the rear turbine blades, which are linked by a shaft to the large front fan. Finally, the rear nozzle is carefully designed, using fluid dynamic principles, to produce as much thrust from the hot air as possible.
I would imagine a significant majority of modern turbine engines produced today are used in commercial aircraft, but obviously the front fan is not suitable for all applications.
This cutaway picture shows the main components of a modern commercial aircraft jet turbine engine.