It is hardly possible to measure one –way speed of light (to get any other value than c), because it is necessary to synchronize distant clocks first. One clock is at point of departure and another at the point of arrival. To synchronize clocks it is necessary to know that one way speed of light, since it is the “greatest available speed” and no instantaneous transfer of signal is possible.
Method Nr. 2 is known as slow clock transport and is equivalent to Einstein synchrony convention. Measured by means of this synchronization method velocity of light will be c.
Some people think that Roemer measured one - way speed of light. Actually Roemer measured speed of light back and forth, Australian physicist Karlov showed that in his analysis.
It is also not possible to synchronize clocks by means of rigid rod, since absolutely rigid bodies do not exist and signal cannot move inside the rod faster than light. As a consequence it is not possible to measure one way speed of light by synchronizing clocks by a chain (S. Marinov once proposed this synchronization in rotating mirrors experiment) which connects two clock faces. Momentum will not travel through the chain faster than light.
It is also impossible to measure one way velocity of light(other than c) by two discs that rotate with the same velocity in immediate vicinity. Then you move these discs in different directions. But, if the ether exists, due to motion through the ether these discs will slow down at different magnitude and will be finally out of sync. So, measured velocity will be c.
One of the most interesting methods was so - called Double Fizeau Toothed wheel. There are two clock faces (or toothed wheels) that are connected by rigid rood. It implies that elastic force has to keep the rod straight all the time. It seems that after initial acceleration the discs have to rotate at the same phase. An experimenter sends the beam through one wheel first and the beam goes through the next wheel then. By angular velocity (when the beam vanishes) it seems that we can calculate velocity of light one way.
Some people believe that this measurement (if properly done) will allow to measure one way speed of light.
This method was employed by Stephan Marinov and M.D. Farid Ahmet.
But (this is my opinion and some other researchers) the rod will twist in laboratory (if the ether exist). That twist will compensate differences in velocities and measured velocity will be c.
Herbert Ives (who measured time dilation by means of Transverse Doppler Effect) considered this method in his 1939 article and came to the same conclusion also. Good to note that Ives never accepted SR
However, all these methods do not resolve the problem - whether one way velocity of light is c in all directions. Velocity of light clockwise and counterclockwise will be different on rotating ring, if measured with single clock or if the clocks are synchronized from the center. But, if we will measure velocity of light on certain segment of the rings by two Einstein – synchronized clocks (light is sent from clock to clock on the ring) measured velocity will be c.
Angle of aberration depends on velocity of light, but if we assume that one way velocity of light in ether is c, then it will be greater if you move towards source of light or lower if you recede from it. This way angle of aberration will always be the same despite of velocity of your laboratory.
Einstein synchronization is a convention that doesn't prove that velocity of light in all direction is c. Reichenbach's synchrony convention is self consistent and admits that velocity of light is different in different directions, while measured velocity back and forth is c. For example velocity of light back can be infinitely large and forth infinitely close to c/2.
Interesting book by Max Jammer:
In Lorentz theory velocity of light is the same in all directions only in preferred frame ( Ether). For moving observer it will be different in different directions. But, measurements of length and clock rate by moving observer and one at rest in the Ether will be the same (measuring rod contracts and clock dilates), if the moving observer cannot detect his own motion through the Ether and employs the same Einstein signaling method for clock synchronization in his frame
It s possible simulate the whole Special Relativity (with all effects – Time dilation, length contraction, Barn and Ladder paradox, Twin paradox, Bell’s spaceship paradox, relativistic velocity addition, relativistic Doppler Effect e.t.c) in medium - even in a pond in your backyard.