It is not acceptable to change a question to invalidate two existing good answers to your question, you should have asked a new question.
There are two types of particles in the universe, the fermions and the bosons. The fermions take up space in the sense that you can't have too many in the same region of (phase) space. And the bosons basically mediate interactions with the fermions. You can tell whether something is a fermion based on its spin. The Higgs boson has spin 0, the Z, the W+, W-, photon and all the gluons are spin 1 and the graviton (if it exists has spin 2). All integers. The fermions have spin that is not an integer. They include the leptons and the quarks all of which have so in 1/2.
Now we said bosons mediate interactions. So we have to say which things interact with each other. This is like saying who is married to each other. It is a grouping. It could be that everything interacts with the graviton (if it exists) or with the Higgs. But not everything interacts with the photon. All the quarks do but only half the leptons do. But the leptons interact stronger than the quarks do. So we assign a quantity to express this interaction. And this type of interaction just needs a single number (positive or negative) to characterize it. So we assign a charge to everything and assign a charge of zero to the leptons that don't interact with the photon and we assign a charge to the down quark but we assign three times that charge to the electron. And the -2 times as much to the up quark and -3 times as much to the positron. And so on. Because that is how much much stronger they react to photons.
But that was just one boson, the photon. We also need charges to describe interactions with other bosons. For instance the gluons need color charge which isn't a positive or negative number but a 3d space of colors and anticolors, it is a more complicated interaction. Even more so since gluons themselves have color charge.
Since we have different charges for different interactions we have to give them different names, so we call the charge for how strong you interact with the photon the electric charge. So we have electric charge and color charge. The quarks have both the electron, positron, muon, anti-muon, taon, anti-taon have electric charge but no color charge. The photon has neither charge. The gluons have a color charge (color and anticolor) but not electric charge. The W+ and W- have electric charge but no color charge.
This isn't circular because we haven't mentioned electric fields. We have lots of things that interact in lots of ways and so we have to say which interact in which ways. And rather than list them all we can say things like that the electron and a muon and tauon and W- all interact with the photon in the same way because we can assign them the same electric charge and then say how everything with that a charge interacts with the photon. And even better we can just say they interact three times as strong as the down quark (which has the same charge as the strange and bottom quarks and the anti-up, the anti-charm, and the anti-top quarks). This saves a lot of effort comparing to just giving the name of each particle and then saying how it interacts with the photon. So we assign a thing called charge to thibgs based on how they interact with a boson.
Now you might not be two surprised that photons and electric fields have similar jobs. Sometimes a bunch of photons can together have nice enough properties that you want to describe them with a simpler mathematics. The proper mathematics for photons is to have a bunch of operators at each point in spacetime. But sometimes describing a six dimension combination of planes in a 4d spacetime is pretty accurate for describing what it is and what it does. And sometimes we can pick a frame and describe that 6d combination of planes in 4d with two vectors. Though someone in a different frame would get two different vectors but they would both agree on the 6d object it formed in a 4d spacetime they really are just cutting up the planes in 4d into two groups in different ways, much like when you pick an x y and z axis you can cut up a line in 3d into a combination of numbers. Someone that picks different directions for their axis will get numbers but will agree on the 3d line in question.
OK, so after they broke the 6d combination of planes in 4d into two 3d vectors one of them is the electric field vector. It it one half of an approximation to how every photon in the universe is collectively net interacting with charges at that point.
And it turns out that when that interaction is behaving simply enough for this approximation to work the interaction ends up being as simple as making the thing with the charge feel a force proportional to the change.
Which is actually pretty simple since in general the interaction with the photon could be as complicated as orchestrating the complete destruction of an electron and a positron by making them annihilate into gamma rays (a type of photon).