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If one particle is dependent on the other how can an action on one particle affect the state of another if when you measure a particle, the result you see is based off of something that technically hasn't happened yet?

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Your mistake was thinking each particle has a state. If that were the case they would not be entangled. What happens is you have a joint state for the pair of particles.

Since it starts out a joint state, when you act on the state you act on a joint state so it affects the joint state.

And yes, what we call an observation or a measurement changes the (joint) state (or even the individual state if it has one).

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  • $\begingroup$ They have a state when they are measured though. $\endgroup$ – Yogi DMT Sep 15 '16 at 18:54
  • $\begingroup$ There are different kinds of measurements. Some measurements on the joint space actually place the joint system into an entangled state. $\endgroup$ – Timaeus Sep 15 '16 at 19:27

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