According to my understanding, the dark energy is something that permeates space. The space in between the quantum particles (say like space between a nucleus and electrons, going even more deeper, I find the space between the quarks as well) and also the space that is pushing the galaxies apart.

The amount of dark energy is crucial for a universe to get created in first place. Now I see that when one breaks open a proton one can find a odd number (3, 5, 7...) of quarks contained within a proton. When one tries to create a vacuum, after taking out all of the air out we still remain with a fluctuation field called the Gluons fluctuating field. But a really true vacuum can be created by a quark and an anti-quark interaction. The place where the quark and anti-quark interact form a flux tube. And this flux tubes contains nothing but a real, true vacuum.

So my question is that I think these flux tubes are dark energy? And do the gluons fluctuating field exists everywhere like the Higgs field?

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    $\begingroup$ Please comment if u do a negative vote... If u dono the answer it doesn't mean that if need to down vote. If my views are wrong correct me bud's but simply vote down doesnt mean anything. $\endgroup$ – DJphy Jul 15 '15 at 9:02
  • $\begingroup$ I didn't vote you down, but flux tubes can only exist over very tiny distances. Stretch one too much and it creates 2 new quarks rather than gets much longer than the width of a proton or there abouts. And, I'm not sure the flux tube contains nothing, it might contain a gluon energy field of sorts, and it certainly contains or represents energy. At least, that's my understanding, so before you even get to your question, I had trouble following your reasoning. Now, there's lots of people who know more about this than I do here. That's just my 2 cents. $\endgroup$ – userLTK Jul 15 '15 at 10:03
  • $\begingroup$ I know that it creates a quark-antiquark pair after some threshold. I am concerned why this space(it might contain a gluon energy field of sorts;as u have said) cannot be a dark energy. And does gluons field exists outside of Hadrons also??...So u agree that u didn't no much and hence u negative voted @userLTK ... $\endgroup$ – DJphy Jul 15 '15 at 10:19
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    $\begingroup$ Well, for starters, I said I did NOT vote you down, only that I found your question hard to follow. (and I've read it 4 times). If the gluon field and flux tubes exist inside particles with mass like hadrons and dark energy, which by all observations, operates as a factor of distance and isn't related to mass, how can they be the same? And, if the Gluon field only happens where the strong force is active, over very short distances, how could it exist everywhere like the Higgs field? I'm not trying to give you a hard time, I rather enjoy theoretical questions. $\endgroup$ – userLTK Jul 15 '15 at 10:43
  • $\begingroup$ Okay @userLTK sorry about my comments up there... I was just upset about the way the people are down voting and closing good questions on this site. Link for a good question being closed physics.stackexchange.com/questions/161097/… $\endgroup$ – DJphy Jul 15 '15 at 11:26

There is a number of misconceptions in the question. I did not downvote the question, but I will just try to address some of the mistakes.

  1. In Quantum Field Theroy (QFT) all fields permeat all space. I am not sure what you mean by "gluon fluctuating field" - there is simply a quantum field for each particle type: not only for gluons, but also for electrons, each quark type, muons, tauons, neutrions, photons, Higgs boson, vector bosons of weak interaction. And all these quantum fields permeat all the space, so I can say yes - the gluon field exists everywhere, like the Higgs field and also like any other quantum field (gluon field is not special). And all these fields have their lowest energy (vacuum) state: sometimes this lowest energy state is called "vacuum fluctuations" because the fields are never exactly zero, even if there are no particles nearby. Thus all quantum fields fluctuate - not only gluon field. Particles are something like small localized disturbances in these fields (something like little "waves" that are moving in these fields).

  2. If you try to create vacuum, it is not sufficient to take away only the air. You also need to remove the radiation, because radiation is made from photons and photons are also particles. And radiation can be infrared, generated by the heat of distant sources or from the walls of the vessel where you create the vacuum. Even very cold objects (almost absolute zero Kelvin temperature) still radiate energy in the form of electromagnetic waves. And besides the radiation you need to remove neutrinos. These little guys fly everywhere in space, through our bodies, in vast amounts, and it is basically impossible to shield them out. And even if you remove all photons and all neutrinos, there are still the vacuum fluctuations in all fields (not just gluon field). This lowest energy state of quantum fields cannot be removed. It is a direct consequance of the fact that the fields are quantum: they cannot have an exact value and at the same time also an exact "rate of change" of this value, due to Heisenberg uncertainty. I am simplifying here (in fact the uncertainty is about the field and its canonical momentum, but this is a technical detail). So even without particles, at each point of space there are many quantum fields in their lowest energy state which is non-zero.

  3. I am not sure what you mean by "true vacuum". See the explanation above and hopefuly this will clarify it for you. Not even quark-antiquark interaction can change the fact that all fields fluctuate. No interaction can remove the quantum behavior of fields. Quark and antiquark will maybe just form a meson particle for a very short time. The meson quickly decays into leptons or photons.

  4. Inside a proton there are 3 valence quarks (not 5 and not 7). Besides these valence quarks there is an uncertain amount of other quark-antiquark pairs inside each proton, so in fact it is not possible to say how many quarks are in a proton (or neutron, which is an analogous case).

  5. I would conclude that flux tubes are not dark energy. Dark energy distribution is uniform in space, but quark interactions do not definitely happen uniformly in all the space. Quarks interact via strong interaction which is a short range force (can only reach to distances of a few femtometers). Dark energy is affecting galaxy clusters billions of light years away.

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    $\begingroup$ I appreciate the answer, but then what really is dark energy?? If its uniformly distributed then it means that it is present in all of space, even in the smallest spaces like the flux tubes @mpv ... $\endgroup$ – DJphy Jul 15 '15 at 11:46
  • $\begingroup$ @DJphy It is not clear what dark energy is. It could be some other (unknown) quantum field. Or it could be rising from the vacuum fluctuations of the known fields. $\endgroup$ – mpv Jul 15 '15 at 12:55
  • $\begingroup$ Can it be present inside the flux tube as well, just a clarification @mpv $\endgroup$ – DJphy Jul 15 '15 at 13:18
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    $\begingroup$ @DJphy Yes, it is everywhere, so even inside a flux tube. $\endgroup$ – mpv Jul 15 '15 at 14:06

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