A high speed electron knocks an orbital electron in the atom. This collision creates a vacancy that is filled by an electron from a higher energy level. My question is, what happen with both electrons after the collision? (high speed electron and the knocked electron)

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    $\begingroup$ Off we go, into the wild blue yonder... Eventually they land jobs filling orbitals around other atoms. $\endgroup$ – Jon Custer Jun 23 '15 at 22:29
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    $\begingroup$ Or somethimes they have to moonlight ... taking part-time jobs in several atoms that form a vertical trust^W^W benzene ring. $\endgroup$ – dmckee --- ex-moderator kitten Jun 23 '15 at 22:42

Its a many particle interactive system and electrons are being knocked out from many such atoms from various shells-

they can be caught by some other atoms if a suitable place is available in their arrangements or

get out loosing their energies by collision /radiation and transforming to mainly thermal energies.

The efficiency is at a level that only 1% of the total energy input gets back as X-rays.

The Tube target is to be cooled continuously by water otherwise the target can melt so a lot of energy of electrons convert to heat and electromagnetic radiation.

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