Is there any other superfluid element except helium? Everywhere we see and speak about superfluidity, we just speak about superfluid helium. but is't there any other element or material or system which acts as a superfluid?


1 Answer 1


Yes, para hydrogen, in a limited manner.

Recent work at Göttingen has revealed convincing evidence for superfluidity in liquid hydrogen, the only liquid other than helium to exhibit this quantum behaviour.

From a spectroscopic experiment on droplets of parahydrogen, it has been discovered that properties of superfluid are observed in a system of about 14 to 16 parahydrogen molecules.

It should be emphasized that superfluidity in a shell containing about 15 hydrogen molecules does not necessarily mean that the phenomenon will ever be observed in bulk liquid. Indeed, it probably will not, due to the difficulty of maintaining the liquid state at low enough temperatures. But the results for droplets seem to have given us a new superfluid, presumably quite different from the liquid heliums with which low-temperature physicists are so familiar. It will be an interesting challenge to find ways of studying superfluid parahydrogen in order to establish its properties.

I am puzzled by the

"difficulty of maintaining the liquid state at low enough temperatures".

I worked for years with data from the 2m hydrogen bubble chamber, lots of liquid hydrogen there.

  • $\begingroup$ :maybe the reason of the difficulty is due to the small number of the particles involved in the hydrogen system we have here...!! $\endgroup$
    – P.A.M
    Jun 10, 2015 at 16:14
  • $\begingroup$ It's more likely that they were referring to the fact that, unlike helium, hydrogen has a solid phase, so at extremely low temperatures, the pressure must be carefully kept below a certain limit to avoid freezing. $\endgroup$ May 17, 2018 at 0:09

Your Answer

By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged or ask your own question.