The alpha particles are emitted as bare nuclei, with charge +2. This is how alphas were originally distinguished from betas and gammas back when radioactivity was being discovered: the three species bent in different directions in a magnetic field.
It's possible to distinguish between a two-body decay (to alpha and negative ion) from a three- or four-body decay (to alpha, daughter atom, and electron) by looking at the energy of the alpha particle. In a three-body decay, like beta decay, the angles between the different particles aren't fixed, and so the beta particles are emitted with a broad range of energies. In a two-body decay, the alpha and the nucleus are emitted back-to-back, and the alpha always has the same energy.
There is some small probability for an electron to be knocked out during alpha decay, most likely from the innermost shell. In that case the alpha decay would be accompanied by X-rays as the electron cloud reconfigures itself.