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All movement in our universe produces heat from collisions with molecules (correct me if I'm wrong). If you had a super-powerful heat sensor/detector, could you use it to detect where heat is and use that information to determine what happened in any event in the past?

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    $\begingroup$ No. Absolutely not. The past is almost as dark as the future. $\endgroup$
    – CuriousOne
    May 4, 2015 at 4:46

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In classical mechanics, yes. But in the world of the quantum, no. This is because we cannot know anything with absolute certainty and because things are based off of probability in quantum mechanics. Also, not all particles interact with others to produce heat. Many neutrinos are passing brought you right now.

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    $\begingroup$ No even in classical physics because of sensitive dependence and the fact that there are not perfect instruments. $\endgroup$ May 4, 2015 at 3:59
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if you knew the exact amount of thermal energy that every particle in the universe possessed, it would still not be enough to predict the past.

the unified field theory seeks to find an equation that will sum up the universe by unifying all of the fundamental forces (fields) into one field (possibly a multidimensional vector), just like we have unified the electric field with the magnetic field into electromagnetism. from such an equation it would be possible to determine with exactness the events of the past and future (assuming that there are no fully random events in the universe like schrodinger's cat). however, an answer to an equation is only as accurate as the variables put in to the equation, so in order to predict the past and future with 100% accuracy, we would need to know the exact value of the velocity, thermal energy, potential energy due to the fundamental forces etc... (every variable) of each fundamental particle in the universe (just one variable such as thermal energy is not enough). furthermore, if these values are just a little bit out, the inaccuracy of the result that allows us to determine the past or future will grow as you try to predict further into the past or future (think of it this way, if i throw a ball, i can predict where it will land with high accuracy but i can only predict where the ball will be in 100 years with very low accuracy.

because getting all the exact data for this unified equation is impossible, we cannot with 100% certainty predict the past or future, especially not just using heat.

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