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Is the angle between the spin orientation and the magnetic dipole orientation for all electrons and under all circumstances the same?

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The angle is the same as long as you consider a free electron. Then they are parallel:

$\vec{\mu}_\mathrm{elec}=-g_\mathrm{elec}\mu_\mathrm{Bohr}\frac{\vec{S}}{\hbar}$

with $g_\mathrm{elec}\approx 2$ (neclecting effects from quantum electro dynamics).

But when dealing with bound electrons (e.g. in an atom), where the electron also has some orbital angular momentum $\vec{l}$ things get more complicated and you have to consider the different contributions (weighting with g-factor) of the different angular momenta (including the spin).

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  • $\begingroup$ This is how I expected it. Have I to ask about the free electrons in a wire under the influence of an electric current in a separate question? $\endgroup$ – HolgerFiedler Apr 7 '15 at 12:28
  • $\begingroup$ Could you answer this question about side effects of the Biot-Savart experiment too, please? $\endgroup$ – HolgerFiedler Apr 7 '15 at 12:33

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