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Inside a proton there are 3 valance quarks. In addition, there is constant creation and annihilation of gluon, quarks and anti-quarks. The number of virtual particles we observe depends on how closely we look. The number of valence quarks remains fixed.

  1. How does does this scaling effect occur?

  2. Is this analogous (or even identical) to the problems of renormalization that QED "fixed" for the electron 60 odd years ago?

  3. Crudely speaking, as we approach the particle, because it's charge, whether strong force, electric charge etc...., increases "closer" in, is that the reason we are likely to see more virtual particles?

This question may need an edit to suit the standards expected from this site. I appreciate and fully accept that confirmation (binary yes/no) answers are not applicable and I will edit it accordingly in the near future. However, if anybody has an answer for the first question I would appreciate that.

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My "answer" to this question is, for the moment at least, do more reseach and update this current note with more details as I discover them. I am reluctant to withdraw this question for the moment, I asked it ahead of myself and my knowledge level but I will return to it, even if only for my own personal notes.

The answer to my question may lie in a historical reading of the follow on from the Lamb effect, which I do follow in general terms, and the concept of renormalisation which developed from early -1940s- attempts to put a maths basis to this discovery. This will then lead on gauge invariance / symmetry concepts and the concept of local versus "trival" global transformations and the conservation laws associated with them.

Two books pitched at my current level, which I have recently bought are "Deep Down Things" and "The Infinity Puzzle" by Frank Close. In addition, I will look through wikipedia, although I feel the answers there cannot always be taken at face value and I would prefer additional sources.

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