I would like to know more in detail what's really going on in a simple circuit like this. I think I understand it, but I have a lot of things mixed up and others aren't clear to me. I'm going to write an explanation of what I think is right (I know it will contain a lot of mistakes), and I would like if the community could help me understand the things that I have wrong.
So to begin:
The electrons flow from the negative terminal of the battery through the wire to the positive terminal because there is a deficiency of electrons (conventional current goes positive to negative). I think that this deficiency is called the voltage right? So then the battery creates an electric field inside the wire because of the voltage, and for some reason there are surface charges on the wire that help the electrons flow in the correct direction.
I guess my questions in addition to the correction of my explanation are:
- How does the voltage of the battery relate to the electric field inside the wire?
- How does the voltage of the battery relate to the surface charges on the wire?
- What determines the amount of surface charge on the wire? (Why more near the battery, less farther away)
Finally am I missing anything in my understanding?