You're standing on a gedanken planet holding a laser pointer straight up. The light doesn't curve round, or slow down as it ascends, or fall down. It goes straight up. Now I wave my magic gedanken wand and make the planet denser and more massive. The light still doesn't curve round, or slow down as it ascends, or fall down. I make the planet even denser and more massive. The light still doesn't curve round, or slow down as it ascends, or fall down. I make the planet even denser and more massive, and take it to the limit such that it's a black hole. At no point did the light ever curve round, or slow down as it ascends, or fall down. So why doesn't the light get out?
The problem with you argument is that you are standing on the planet! When you make it denser and denser and eventually turn it into a black hole, you would still be standing on it, ie be outside the event horizon, so as you are saying correctly the light will escape.
If you would like to think about being inside the event horizon then it's wrong to imagine yourself standing on anything, because there can be no static observer inside an event horizon. You would be falling instead.
The correct analogy would then be this: Imagine falling from a very high mountain and also imagine throwing a heavy rock upwards on your way down. To you, it might look like the rock is moving upwards and the distance between you and the rock will be increasing, but to an observer on the ground the rock is also moving downwards, just at a smaller initial velocity (because of your initial push) and even though you are both moving in same direction, the distance between the two of you is increasing because you are moving at different speeds.
In the same way, light that you think you have emitted outwards when you have crossed a black hole horizon, is in reality also falling in right behind you.
That's just strong equivalence principle. Standing still on a planet is getting accelerated upward. Light is going at the speed $c$ only for inertial observers, that is, for the ones free falling. It is a big misconception to claim that light doesn't "slow down" as it ascends, for you standing still on the planet. Where do you think that red shift comes from ? It comes from this effect, nothing else. So your ray of light will eventually become darker and darker, and even if by ascending it won't "slow down" (the more it climbs into the sky, the less it feels gravitation, so the less it is falling downward, that is the quickest it escapes from you on the ground), it can happen that at some point it just doesn't ascend at all into the sky after it goes out of your laser beam and fall! (obviously, with you before)
edit: for you to understand better what I mean, you have to understand that if you're stationary ahead of a planet (that is, at a constant radius) without rotation, then you're actually getting accelerated a lot upward, otherwise you would simply fall. This is the same on the ground. The ground is accelerating you a lot upward unless it cannot resist to turn into a black hole. Hence, to answer your comment, inside a black hole there is no stationary point, because it would mean that it is possible to get accelerated more than you physically can, so even light has to fall. This in some sense means that there is some maximum acceleration (actually, a maximum gravitational field)