Once emitted photons are indivisible units. When a photon hits an electron,both moving in the same direction, the photon will be partially absorbed and the electron emits another photon with lower energy. This happens for example at linear particle accelerators. The energy from the photon partially goes over to the electron and the electron moves faster. If a photon hits the electron, both moving against each other, the electron gets decelerated and emits photon(s) with in sum more energy than the incoming photon has.
There is a chance to imagine how the photon goes over to the electron. For this one have to think about how an electric field - and a magnetic field too - can be quantized. For this one need two different quanta, one of them is on the end of the electrons and the antiprotons electric fields and one quanta, which is on the end of the positrons and the protons electric fields. I see clearly the objection of well educated people. Physics claims the infinity of the electric field of electrons and the other charged particles.
The postulation of such two quanta has some charme. From this quanta it's easy to design electric and magnetic field lines. And the most important point is that all the photons (of different energy) are made from this two quanta too.
Photons always are composed from the equal number of both quanta. Negative charged particles have more of the negative quanta and this difference is equal for all electrons and antiprotons. The same difference but with majority for positive quanta positrons and protons have. Emitted and absorbed photons don't change the particles charge. But the quanta from the photons will be stored partially on the charged particles or these particles gave the quanta back in form of photons of lower energy.
This concept allows to show, that accelerated particles have higher mass and their charge get shilded more and more. And this concept - under the presumption that field lines exist and this field lines are made from this two quanta in clusters with continuous changing numbers - allows to show that the attraction of the electron and the proton in the atom has discrete limits.
And now please forget about this two quanta. They are only a Gedankenexperiment because until now the electromagnetic spectrum seems to be continuous and there is no evidence for quantisation. But it's an amazing imagination to see how photons do not disappear when they hit a electron but travel biggyback on charged particles.
I hope not to be sunk.