The simple answer is yes, you can see it with the naked eye. It requires only that the light source is showing significant, periodic variations in intensity, and preferably with a frequency greater than the fusion frequency of the human eye (20 - 30 Hz).
The greater the intensity variation, and the shorter the "on" duration, the more pronounced the effect will be. Under some circumstances you can even use fluorescent lighting.
It used to be a common technique to use a strobe light to analyze rotating machinery, although I expect that video cameras are more common these days. If you're actually interested in messing around with this, you can go on eBay and get a working Strobotac for less than $100. This produces a beam of flashing light, with the flash frequency variable to suit the object you're looking at. Shining this on any rotating object can produce interesting results. Or, if you're handy with electronics, you can save some money and make a driver for some high-power LEDs (not white) and get useful results, although strobe tubes give higher peak light levels and so are easier to use.