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How is heat released when bond formation occurs in gases? For example, when atomic oxygen and molecular oxygen combine to form ozone?

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2 Answers 2

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(This is not an answer. I cannot comment because I don't have enough reputation). Have you tried googling heat release chemical bond? See this result, for example.

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The short answer is that when energy is released in any form, it will always find a way to become heat - in other words, spreading itself around all the atoms nearby. In a gas this process takes a little longer, but still occurs.

  1. The stable state of oxygen is of course $O_2$, so it's not the formation of ozone itself that introduces energy into the system, but the photon from the sun that created the lone oxygen atom.

  2. Nevertheless, the reaction of an oxygen atom with an oxygen molecule to form ozone is indeed exothermic. The result will be an ozone molecule that is excited in some way - rotating, vibrating or with electrons in excited states. Sooner later this molecule will get rid of most of its excess energy in some way. It might emit a photon, or alternatively it might de-excite by collision with another molecule, causing an excitation in that molecule, or simply giving the second molecule a kick that gives it translational kinetic energy.

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