I am a mathematician wanting to understand the differences between the concepts of angular momentum and centrifugal force.
The following two ideas are clear to me from a physical point of view, but I have a difficult time discerning the difference between them as people tell me they are different but do not give me any explicit reason as to why.
Angular momentum is a vector quantity (taken in the physical sense) of a mass's rotational velocity about some axis.
Centrifugal force is defined on the axis of a rotational reference frame, which depends on the inertia of the object.
My question: What is the subtle difference between this notion of "rotational reference frame" and the notion of the vector quantity of a mass's rotational velocity?. Are they not physically the same point (vector quantity) of rotation about an axis, thus making the meaning of centrifugal force a relative way to speak about the meaning of angular momentum?
I hope this question isn't too naive. I have been really hoping to understand the subtle difference between these physical concepts in a straightforward way.