Is there the effect of sun rising and sun setting, in terms of Rayleigh scattering and visual spectrum and other factors completely similar and symmetric? I mean can one recognise them from a picture taken from the sky?
The average air temperature is always lower at sunrise, which changes the atmospheric refraction infinitesimally. On the moon, you would only have the tiny difference from the doppler shift due to your motion relative to the sun, so that sunrise would be a teeny-weeny bit bluer than sunset.
In most areas yes, there is more atmospheric pollution generated during the day so sunsets are slightly redder than sunrises.
But from purely orbital/geometric measurements, no they are identical.