I am trying to study the radiation safety and what kind of roles are required there with particle accelerators. Radiation safety groups of CERN is here. I contacted their a few members of them. I am applying there for summer job where I would like to combine my knowledge from my degrees of Medicine and Physics. I am particularly interested in tissue damage caused by these accelerators and cannot find studies about them and how possible radiation can start different physiological processes in human body.
I am interested in what should be studied more and improved in these processes. Can we optimise something?
Engineering fields based on this publication
- warning devices
- circuit diagrams
- ventilation systems
- portable or mobile accelerators
These accelerators used in Healing Arts (ibid.)
- Leakage radiation to the patient area.
- Leakage radiation outside the patient area for new equipment.
- Beam limiting devices.
- Electron beam quality.
- Beam monitors.
- Beam symmetry.
- Selection and display of dose monitor units.
- Termination or irradiation by the dose monitoring system or systems.
- Interruption and termination switches.
- Selection of radiation type.
- Selection of stationary beam therapy or moving beam therapy.
- Absorbed dose rate.
- Spot check
where these processes are used to restrict the radiation to the human. I think this is the reason why they call it healing arts.
Safety control measures from this publication
I think CERN's particle accelerator measures are similar to X-ray. (please, post relevant if you find)
[X-ray equipment] measures include written procedures for operation and alignment, periodic testing of interlocks and safety devices, proper labeling of equipment and posting of rooms, and limits on radiation fields produced by the equipment.
Periodic safety surveys of analytical x-ray equipment will be conducted by Office of Radiation Safety staff.
I think this involves
- personnal dosimetry
- extreme dosimetry
- dosimeter exchange (4 times a year at least)
- maximum limits of radiation annum
- Investigation levels to different organs (total effective vs eye) - This can be approximated but can also be counted individually. Interesting to know if anyone has done this for each individual based on their characteristics.
which are regularly studied in
- monthly reports
- year reports
- notifications sent to MDs and other relevant people about levels which exceed permitted levels
What are these safety surveys? How are they conducted? Are users of the machines somehow tested and/or interviewed?
- Absorbed units
- Dose equivalent
- Organ specific $H = \sum D_i W_i$ where separate factors (effective dose values) for each organ
- Effective dose equivalent
Some factors which I would like to know more about because they are tissue specific
- deep dose equivalent
- shallow dose equivalent
- eye dose equivalent
- total effective dose equivalent
- committed equivalent dose equivalent
How can you determine shallow dose and deep dose equivalents?
Safety Organisation based on ASU model
- Radiation Regulatory Agency
- Radiation Safety Committee
- Radiation Safety Officer
- Operators and License Holders
where I think CERN's approach must have similar hierarchy
Radiation Control Measures
- Notification of receipt of equipment
- Radiation surveys of equipment
- Testing of safety devices
- Emergency procedures
Then, each equipment have safety own procedures
- visual indications
- beam shutters
Facilities have dedicated work places. Users have specific requirements; possibility to bypass interlocks and safety devices. Personnel must not be exposed to primary beam in any phase.
Is there any meta-analysis about Radiation Safety from Particle Accelerators and processes to manage it? I am particularly interested in how they do it in CERN.