Can I design a diffraction grating that has only two orders of diffraction, with the second one has a zero intensity?
So the first order of diffraction would be bright and the weak light from far stars could be analyzed
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I guess you need blazed diffraction grating:
You don't really need to design it - they are manufactured in volume for spectrum analyzers, for example here: http://www.thorlabs.de/newgrouppage9.cfm?objectgroup_id=26 . You may also check tutorial there, and a mandatory wiki link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blazed_grating