Can you take a laser beam of high intensity and refract it in a way to convert it to a safe level? White light traveling through a prism refracts into the individual wavelengths, could something similar be achieved with a high powered laser?
Perhaps you're looking for a beam expander? It takes a collimated beam and expands or reduces its size.
I make no claim as to whether it reduces the intensity to a "safe" level, but it certainly reduces intensity.
No because laser light is almost monochromatic, that is, it has only a single wavelength (that is for an ideal laser, in actual lasers some wavelengths around the main one are also included), but for the practical purposes you are mentioning, you can consider it purely monochromatic.
Updated answer from questions on comments:
1)how would you reduce the intensity of a laser already fired in mid-air? you can put on the path some material that disperses light, this is different than refraction. Dispersion can happen to monochromatic waves. Intuitively, is like the wave crashes and bounces off in several directions.
2) What makes lasers not dangerous after they hit solid objects? Wouldn't they just reflect off in different directions? If it was reflected by a perfect mirror (without absorption or dispersion, the intensity would stay the same. But most objects are not mirrors, they are rather rough surfaces in which different parts point to different directions (at the microscopical level). This will cause a dispersion of the beam with the corresponding decrease in power per unit area. Plus most materials also absorb part of the light.