For example - there are two "object" beams, both 180-degrees out of phase with the reference beam, which hit the recording plate at angles of incidence of 30-degrees and 90-degrees respectively. Assume that the reference beam is at 90-degrees (so that the second "object" beam is in-plane with the reference beam)
What will be the difference in the interference pattern recorded, and how will it "decode" to the specific values of the phase difference and angle of incidence, instead of being able to output a range of valid combinations of phase difference and relative angles of incidence that would produce the same interference pattern?
Note: A physical explanation (i.e, something that can be explained with words or pictures) would be greatly preferred to a mathematical one. That's the reason for the specific example given in the question, so that the encoding/decoding of the interference pattern can be explained directly, perhaps geometrically using the physics of waves, rather than esoteric (to my layman-eyes) information-encoding theories etc.