It no doubt does. Solar radiation will heat surfaces, and the rate at which a black surface absorbs that heat is greater than for other colors. That heat is then partly lost by radiation, partly by conduction, and partly by convection. If you assume the last two terms will be the same regardless of the color, then you can see why a black surface will become relatively hotter than other surfaces (which reflect more heat).
These hotter surfaces affect the local temperature: maybe not by much, but certainly a measurable amount. If you have ever see the "shimmer" of the air above a hot road surface, you will have observed the impact of the heating of the air on the refractive index of that air - a visible reminder that sunlight on dark roads heats the air (image source).
So if air locally gets heated, it stands to reason that temperature measurements nearby will be biased. A 21 lane highway in a sunny area is likely to bias the measurement.
There are many instances where local geography can affect temperature. The size of the artifact giving rise to a variation will affect the distance over which it can affect the measurement: a 21 lane road may affect temperatures measurably within a 50 m range, while temperatures at the edge of Lake Michigan can be lower than those measured further inland for several miles.
From the wikipedia article on "urban heat island" effect (my emphasis):
An urban heat island (UHI) is a metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. The phenomenon was first investigated and described by Luke Howard in the 1810s, although he was not the one to name the phenomenon.1 The temperature difference usually is larger at night than during the day, and is most apparent when winds are weak. UHI is most noticeable during the summer and winter. The main cause of the urban heat island effect is from the modification of land surfaces, which use materials that effectively store short-wave radiation . Waste heat generated by energy usage is a secondary contributor.
Replacing trees with tarmac will increase the apparent temperature in the vicinity.