In class we see how a current reduces the voltage across the battery if it has internal resistance. And we see that Vterminal=EMF-Ir. We don't really see the theory behind this, and I went on to investigate a little further.
What I found out was that when a current is flowing there is less time for a battery to create a potential difference. However, I wanted to know what is happening microscopically and was hoping someone could tell me.
Does the length between the positive and negative terminals become shorter such that the voltage becomes less? Or does the amount of accumulated charge on both sides decrease?
Also, and don't answer this if you consider this irrelevant, how is that a battery manages to establish a voltage in my wire?
Also I was wondering if the so-called "nonelectrostatic force" inside a battery is always equal to the electric force inside the battery?