# Integrals of Motion for s Degrees of Freedom

From Landau & Lifshitz, Classical Mechanics, the number of integrals of independent integrals of motion for a system of $s$ degrees of freedom is $2s-1$.

I am considering a spherical pendulum in absence of gravity. For this problem $s=2$, so I expect 3 independent integrals of motion. The first two are the angular momentum in the $\theta$ and $\phi$ direction. The energy is also a constant of motion, but in the absence of motion it is a function of the angular momentum since $$L=T=\frac{m\ell^2}{2}(\dot{\theta}^2+\dot{\phi}^2\sin^2(\theta)).$$

I have 3 integrals of motion but 2 are independent. Did I miss one, or have I misunderstood the statement from Landau? The linear momentum should not be conserved, so should I include integrals of motion of ignorable coordinates?

1. Write the 3D angular momentum vector $\vec{L}$ in spherical coordinates.
2. Note that $\vec{L}$ depends on the angular coordinates $\theta$ and $\varphi$ (and their time derivatives), but not the radial coordinate $r$ (and its time derivative).
3. Claim that $\vec{L}$ are three independent integrals of motion for a particle confined on the two-sphere $S^2$.
• There are two DOF on $S^2$. A maximally superintegrable system with two DOF has three integrals of motion, cf. e.g. my Phys.SE answer here. Sep 10, 2014 at 15:58