Can some one give me the unified formula for Gravity Time Dilation and Velocity Time Dilation.


closed as off-topic by Brandon Enright, Ben Crowell, ACuriousMind, Alfred Centauri, Danu Aug 24 '14 at 21:08

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    $\begingroup$ This question appears to be off-topic because it is about providing formulas rather than physics concepts and shows insufficient effort. $\endgroup$ – Brandon Enright Aug 24 '14 at 18:47
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    $\begingroup$ But still, someone can give me a formula right? I don't think there is any mistake in asking for one. :D $\endgroup$ – Lakshmanan Kanthi Aug 24 '14 at 19:07
  • $\begingroup$ A formula without explanation and understanding is useless. See the Wikipedia articles for both the formulas and the explanations. $\endgroup$ – Brandon Enright Aug 24 '14 at 19:08
  • $\begingroup$ I read that and I understood it. But I quite couldn't get the formula. That's why I asked for one. $\endgroup$ – Lakshmanan Kanthi Aug 24 '14 at 19:09

The unified formula used in General Relativity is $$d\tau=\sqrt{\sum_{\mu=0}^3\sum_{\nu=0}^3 g_{\mu\nu}dx^\mu dx^\nu},$$ which by Einstein's notation (summation over doubly repeating indices is implicit) is also written as $$d\tau=\sqrt{g_{\mu\nu}dx^\mu dx^\nu}.$$ Here $d\tau$ is the proper time "felt" or measured by particle moving in the spacetime, for some infinitesimal segment of the world line; $dx^\mu=(dx^0,dx^1,dx^2,dx^3)=(dt,dx,dy,dz)$ are coordinate components of the displacement along that world line, and $g_{\mu\nu}$ (16 numbers) is the metric tensor for the specific curved spacetime where the motion takes place. The metric tensor both shows the shape of the curved spacetime and the way the soordinate system is drawn onto it. For the longer part of the world line, you should integrate that formula over the world line, so it becomes $$\tau=\int_L\sqrt{g_{\mu\nu}dx^\mu dx^\nu}.$$

If we divide the formula by $dt$, we get (latin indices are summed only over the 1...3 range, so they imply only spatial coordinates): $$\frac{d\tau}{dt}=\sqrt{g_{00}+(g_{0i}+g_{i0})v^i+g_{ij}v^i v^j}.$$ $d\tau/dt$ is the time dilation factor with respect to the coordinate $t$. For the flat spacetime and Cartesian coordinates, $g_{00}=1$, $g_{11}=g_{22}=g_{33}=-1$ and all other $g_{\mu\nu}$'s are zero. For the spherical non-rotating gravitating body (Schwarzschild metric) and polar coordinates, $$g_{tt}=1-\frac{2GM}{r},\quad g_{rr}=\frac{1}{1-\frac{2GM}{r}},\quad g_{\theta\theta}=r^2,\quad g_{\varphi\varphi}=r^2\sin^2\theta,$$ and all other $g_{\mu\nu}$'s are zero.

Besides that, GR considers very general spacetimes, so the general formula is the only one used everywhere.

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    $\begingroup$ I really don't understand why someone downvoted this. The equation firtree gives for $d\tau/dt$ is the most general equation for the time dilation, and indeed it's the equation I used in the Q/A I linked in my answer (albeit in a simplified form). The cynic in me suggests this is an example of a downvote meaning I don't understand this answer rather than this answer is wrong. $\endgroup$ – John Rennie Aug 24 '14 at 19:36
  • $\begingroup$ @JohnRennie I just hope OP has found what s/he wanted in my answer. If s/he personally would not understand something, I'd like to clarify. $\endgroup$ – firtree Aug 24 '14 at 19:42
  • $\begingroup$ I suppose someone may have downvoted because you answered a type of question that many here would like to see discouraged. $\endgroup$ – Alfred Centauri Aug 24 '14 at 20:26
  • $\begingroup$ @AlfredCentauri I don't understand such subtle political games. And I wasn't the first one, John Rennie was earlier :-) $\endgroup$ – firtree Aug 24 '14 at 20:32
  • $\begingroup$ firtree, I'm not arguing that it is the case, only that it is a possible motivation among several. $\endgroup$ – Alfred Centauri Aug 24 '14 at 20:42

The time dilation due to velocity and due to spacetime curvature can't be separated. Both are derived from the metric. There isn't a general formula for this because it depends on the metric in question. For example in my answer to the question A clock in freefall I calculate the time dilation for an observer falling from infinity towards a black hole, but the resulting equation applies only to that situation and isn't general.

Generally speaking the metric gives you an expression for the proper time, and the time dilation is normally taken to be the ratio of proper time to coordinate time, $d\tau/dt$. If you can give us some idea of the system you're looking at we can explain how to calculate this ratio.


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