I'm an amateur physics enthusiast with no formal university education in Physics. So my question might sound very naive, so forgive me.
I had this question in the back of my mind since the wrong discovery of neutrinos travelling faster than light.
My understanding of special relativity is as following. You can measure the physical parameters like length, time, mass of objects in a frame of reference (A) from another frame of reference (B) having a constant relative velocity with A by only looking into the information signals coming from A to B. Since the light(electromagnetic radiation) is the fastest known carrier of information between two frames and since light has a constant relative velocity with any moving inertial frame, the length/time measurements between moving inertial frames are formulated based on its velocity.
Back in 2011 when the 'faster than light' neutrinos were reported one point I heard in popular science reports was that it will invalidate the special theory of relativity. But why is it so? Any particle faster than light would simply interchange the constant $c$ in the special relativity with some new constant(provided this particle also has a constant relative velocity with inertial frame). Doesn't the special relativity theory still holds with the information being exchanged with this new fast particle instead of light? As long as these particles don't travel with infinite velocity all measurements from moving frames will have the time dilation and length contraction. Is my understanding right?
Edit 1: I see another question here and the answer to that seems like my understanding is right. Special relativity theory can be derived from any particle travelling with a constant speed.