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How does electrostatic force generated by two seperate plates having opposite charges affect electronic devices? I know that magnetic fields have some harmful effects to electronic devices but I am not sure if electrostatic forces have these harmful effects since magnetic fields are generated because of the movement of electrons, however, electrostatic fields are generated just because of the presence of charges.

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This is a very broad question, so my answer will necessarily be more generic. Electric fields are much easier to shield than magnetic fields. This is because most materials have low permeability and hence do a poor job of shielding magnetic fields. The same is not true for electric fields as any grounded metal will do a pretty good job.

Many electronic devices that are sensitive to static or time-varying electric fields may employ a ground plane layer in a printed circuit board. Alternatively, sensitive integrated circuits (for example, those found in your phone) have a faraday cage, or metal cover, that rests over the integrated circuit and is electrically connected to ground. This also prevents shock (electrostatic discharge from high-voltage buildup) from causing breakdown in the semiconductor that comprises the chip.

Most cables that carry sensitive signals are also shielded. For instance, high-quality cables carrying audio or data are shielded using a metallic foil that wraps around the outside of the wires that carry those signals. The shields are then grounded at either end, essentially forming a faraday cage around signals that traverse long distances.

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It depends. Mostly there is very little effect because most parts of the circuit are either equi-potentials or under low impedance control with the electrical energy coupling in capacitively , which tens to be a very weak effect. It's only when you have very fast edges and high amplitudes that there is a noticeable effect - i.e. EMP - from a nuclear blast.

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Let me tell you the most known phenomenon.
You may try this even at home.
Take a metallic tumbler and put your mobile phone in it then close the lid so that no part is exposed out of the metallic container.
Now with another mobile try calling your first one. You should not be able to connect to the mobile inside the tumbler. This is called shielding.
Here the fields produced by the other device are blocked from reaching your phone and hence thee phone will not function.

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