# Gravitational Force (conceptual) [duplicate]

1. Why is gravitational force always an attractive force?

2. And is the Newtonian formula of gravitational force applicable for very small particles like electrons and protons etc.? From Formula of Gravitational Force, I'm referring to: $$F_G = \cfrac{GMm}{R^2},$$ where $M$ and $m$ are the masses of objects.

A logical explanation will be much appreciated.

• possible duplicate of Why is gravitation force always attractive? Jun 28, 2014 at 9:55
• I've linked a duplicate to your first question. Re the second question: gravity is universal and affects fundamental partcles and even light rays just as it does big objects. Jun 28, 2014 at 9:57
• I see. Didn't notice that there is a duplicate question too. Sorry! And thanks for the answer of second questin. Jun 28, 2014 at 9:59

As the formula shows that gravitational force is directly proportional to the masses of both the bodies [consider proton and electron] their masses are way too small [mass of electron is $9.10938291 × 10^{-31}$ kilograms] [mass of proton is $1.67262178 × 10^{-27}$ kilograms] and the radius of the first p-orbital from the nucleus is $5.2917721092(17)×10^{−11}$ m calculation of these all terms will lead to a very small froce of order $10^{-47}$ units which will almost equal to zero so the force is negligible.