Crystalline substances show, for certain sharply defined wavelength and incident directions, very sharp peaks of scattered X-ray radiation.
From the illustration below we see that we get constructive interference when the path-length difference is a multiple of the wavelength $\lambda$.
In real crystalline materials we have a large amount of closely packed lattice planes. This large amount accounts for the sharp peaks for certain $\theta$. I do not understand how this follows from the Bragg reflection formula $$ n\lambda = 2d \sin \theta , $$ since $d$ is not constant anymore. I understand the model for two lattice planes as in the illustration.
Is it true that $d$ can only take on values of the seperation of lattice planes, so $d$ is defined to be the seperation of points in the reciprocal lattice, or in others words, is $d$ constrained to be the absolute values of some reciprocal lattice vector?
How does the Bragg condition account for very sharp peaks when we let $d$ run through all such absolute values?