So, here's a diagram with some galaxies.
I realize there are 500 billion galaxies out there (likely many more), but is there are fairly up-to-date diagram of all the galaxies, or a representative sample, at all observable distances?
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This diagram is usually called the Hubble diagram. Here is the Hubble diagram from the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project to Measure the Hubble Constant (Freedman et al. 2001):
The HST Key Project was intended to measure the Hubble constant to high precision using multiple techniques (listed in the legend). Therefore it is constrained to close distances on the cosmological scale (d < 400 Mpc, or z < 0.1).