I am currently a senior in high school. I have spent the past four years participating in physics research at a local lab. Are there any journals in which I as a high schooler can publish my research?
You might consider having your research mentor co-write a paper with you and submit it to a journal of pedagogy such as The Physics Teacher.
Or, if your result is novel enough, any peer-reviewed research journal that includes in its scope the type of science you have worked on in the lab. Your mentor should have some idea of whether this is appropriate or not.