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Imagine an eruption of energy/mass $E$ from a singularity $O$, as in a Big Bang. After the energy/mass $E$ is all at more than a distance $d$ from $O$, is it for some value of $d$ possible that there could be a new eruption of energy/mass from $O$, i.e. a new Big Bang? If yes, is there an upper limit to the number of succeeding Big Bangs?

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    $\begingroup$ That is a very incorrect picture of the big bang. $\endgroup$
    – MBN
    Apr 3, 2014 at 18:00
  • $\begingroup$ I am asking questions, and am not presenting a picture of the Big Bang. $\endgroup$
    – Sapiens
    Apr 3, 2014 at 18:06
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    $\begingroup$ The Big Bang wasn't an eruption of energy/mass E from a singularity O. Your question is predicated on the idea that the Big Bang was like an explosion happening at a point with everything flying away from that point. The Big Bang was completely different from this, so as it stands your question can't be usefully answered. $\endgroup$ Apr 3, 2014 at 18:15
  • $\begingroup$ How was it different from an explosion happening at a point? Is it that space itself is thought to have come into existence with the Big Bang? If the latter, why not take the center of the spatial ball coming into existence as the origo O of my question? $\endgroup$
    – Sapiens
    Apr 3, 2014 at 18:20
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    $\begingroup$ @user24406 point would mean spatial coordinates. But the idea you have of the Big Bang is an event that happens at a location. In truth, the Big Bang is a moment in time, not an event (don't be fooled just because we called it a "bang"). It had no location, so one cannot ask what if it happened again at the same or another location. $\endgroup$
    – Jim
    Apr 3, 2014 at 18:43

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There are several scenarios that point out cyclic cosmologies. The first one is called Matter bounce cosmology which is based on the idea that that the universe originated from a cosmological bounce in which quantum fluctuations develop into a scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations. The bounce is realized beyond Einstein's General Relativity and introduces new forms of matter which violates key energy conditions, since these two aspects allows to avoid the cosmological singularity. Another one is the so-called Ekpyrotic Cosmology which represents our universe as a Dp-brane which arises in string theory. There are two branes separated by a 5-dimensional bulk spacetime (one of those branes is our universe), which contains an attractive force called quitessence which causes the two branes to approach, collide, move through and bounce off each other. The collision seen from an observer living in one of the branes look like a big bang. This collisions and separation of the branes happen infinitely many times.

For more information check the following arxiv articles:

  1. Lehners, J., Ekpyrotic and Cyclic Cosmology, arXiv:0806.1245v2
  2. R. Brandenberger, The matter bounce alternative to in iflationary cosmology," arXiv:1206.4196v1.
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