Dark matter is supposed to exist in a halo with radial symmetry about the galactic center. The gravitational effect is therefore indistinguishable from any other constituent of the galaxy. Things closer than us to the center pull us inward; things farther than us from the center have no effect.
In the same way, we cannot gravitationally observe the composition of the interior of the earth, from a vantage point on the surface. Lowering a probe deep into the planet would allow such structure to be mapped. This is analogous to observing the revolution of stars around other galaxies.
We infer that dark matter exists because the pull of gravity upon stars relative to their distance from galactic center is too much. But either way, in the neighborhood of an individual star, the pull toward the galactic center is roughly uniform.
If we could measure the tidal force of the galaxy, i.e. the difference in acceleration on opposite sides of the solar system, then dark matter might be apparent. Essentially this would be measuring the local density of dark matter presumed to uniformly fill the solar system. But it would be a small effect, intuitively on the order of the galactic orbital acceleration times the ratio of the measured distance, to the distance to the galactic center, squared.
It seems doable, with sufficiently precise probes launched into diverging orbits. However, gravitational effects are what we do know about dark matter so it doesn't seem a very useful experiment. Perhaps a very large space-based gravitational wave observatory would need to correct for the effect, though (as an offset from ordinary tides resulting from difference in galactic orbital distance).